There are some configure options that allow certain modules to be enabled/disabled at configure time but no general approach.
For example it would be ideal if configure's make and nomake option applied to which Qt modules are built e.g.:
configure -make module1 module2 module5 module6 module7 ...
configure -nomake module3 module4 ...
The workaround for this issue is to remove the source code of the modules not required then run configure as normal.