I have documented the issue so far here. https://github.com/mxcl/homebrew/issues/21000
The current problem as far as I can see is the there is no interface WebkitLibrary for 10.9
Hacking it to use the old Mountain Lion one you can see there are a bunch of errors due to things that were previously marked as deprecated, finally being removed.
The configuration options used.
./configure -prefix /usr/local/Cellar/qt/4.8.5 -system-libpng -system-zlib -confirm-license -opensource -cocoa -fast -no-3dnow -L/opt/X11/lib -I/opt/X11/include -platform unsupported/macx-clang -no-qt3support -arch x86_64 -release