licheck supports QT_LICENSE_FILE to tell it where to actually check the license:
Qt Creator does not seem support that and refuses to run if the license file is not found in the usual location:
$ export QT_LICENSE_FILE=/tmp/qt-license.txt
qtaccount.license: Reading Qt Account settings from disk: "/home/user/.local/share/Qt/qtaccount.ini"
qtaccount.license: "Qt Account settings file [/home/user/.local/share/Qt/qtaccount.ini] does not exist."
qtaccount.license: *** License file does not exist: "/home/user/qt-license"
Qt version is no longer known, removing from kit "Qt 5.13.2 (gcc_64) - temporary".
Checking for updates does not work without the qtaccount.ini I guess, but supporting this would at least allow running it in such environments.